Monday, May 25, 2009

The Dithyrambic Dramatist

“In the third and fourth Untimely Ones. Two images of the hardest self-love, self-discipline are put up against all this, as pointers to a higher concept of culture, to restore the concept of culture – untimely types par excellence, full of sovereign contempt for everything around them that was called “Empire,” “culture,” “Christianity,” “Bismarck,” “success,” – Schopenhauer and Wagner or, in one word, Nietzsche.” (Ecce Homo, 1888, "The Untimely Ones", section 1) So, years later, Fritz saw more of himself than Wagner (who was dead by then) in his 1876 essay entitled Richard Wagner at Bayreuth.

The essay is the last of four that are collected under the heading of Untimely Meditations or Unmodern Observations (which is the translation I own). Nietzsche worked on a fifth essay pertaining to philology but he never completed it. Originally, he and his publisher were anticipating about a dozen essays, but no more were ever written or published under this heading. Once more we find Fritz adrift.

The fourth meditation was published in the audience program for the opening of the
Ring Cycle at Bayreuth in 1876. It espouses aspects of Wagner’s philosophy that Nietzsche found most appealing, it focuses more on Wagner as representing the concept of “the heroic artist” rather than on his music. Nietzsche cast himself in the same heroic mold, though as a philosopher not a composer.

As mentioned earlier, the piece would have never been completed without Peter Gast’s urging and assistance. Fritz felt it to be too personal for publication. It expresses rather crisply Nietzsche’s own views of “culture” and “society” at the time.

He was fundamentally optimistic. “…the power of Hellenic culture once again waxes;” (section 4) He proclaimed that Wagner’s art was “the very essence of the
dithyrambic dramatist. If we use this term in its fullest sense to include at once actor, poet, and musician…” (section 7) It seems that a combination of various creative disciplines and talents were a quality of “greatness” for Nietzsche.

But, as would become more pronounced in his later works, the great artist is always struggling. “Wagner’s essential life – that is the gradual emergence of the dithyrambic dramatist – was at the same time an endless battle with himself.” (section 8)

Struggle within a world grinding the spirit out of itself. “…Wagner understood the whole humiliating position in which art and the artist find themselves, how soulless or callous society, which calls itself good and is really evil, includes art and artists in its slavish entourage for gratification of its imagined needs. Modern art is a luxury; this he understood as thoroughly as the corollary that it will stand or fall with the legitimacy of this luxury society. This society knows nothing beyond the most callous and cunning use of its power to render those who are powerless, the people, ever more abject, subservient, and unlike a people, and to transform then into the modern ‘worker’. It has also deprived the people of their greatest and purest things – things they have created out of the profoundest necessity, and through which they – the true, the only artist – gently communicate their spirit: their myth, song, dance, and innovation in language, in order to distill a sensuous antidote to the exhaustion and boredom of their existence – modern art.” (section 8)

I find this passage remarkable in that it clearly defines Nietzsche’s idealistic roots against the emerging capitalist/democratic society (which were very much Wagner’s own opinions we should add, this was a point of central agreement between Wagner and himself). Society remains a “souless and callous” “power” transforming an ironically peopleless people into “the modern worker”. The “true artist”, the “dithyrambic dramatist”, was a combination of “actor, poet, and musician” bringing a cultural renewal of “myth, song, dance, and innovation in language”. This was the way Fritz thought about “this luxury society” of his day - what has transformed today into what I would refer to as the functional consumerist culture.

Nietzsche compares his artist ideal with an ancient Greek upon whom he was an expert. The artist is “a supreme sculptor who, like
Aeschylus, points the way to an art of the future.” (section 9)

Nietzsche was an idealist about the power of the future. “But, in general, the generous impulse of the creative artist is too great, the horizon of his love of man too extensive for his sight to remain enclosed within the national reality. His thoughts are, like those of every good and great German, supra-German, and the language of his art speaks not to nations but to men. But to men of the future! That is his uniquely personal belief, his torment and his distinction: no artist of whatever past has received such a remarkable dowry with his genius, no body but he has had to drink these utterly bitter drops with every draught of nectar that enthusiasm proffered him.” (section 10)

He declared, more or less, his existential position about reality tinged with his most heartfelt hope. “…that passion is better than stoicism and hypocrisy; that honesty, even in evil, is better than losing oneself within traditional morality; that the free man can be good as well as evil, but the unfree man is a disgrace of Nature and shares in neither heavenly nor earthly consolation; finally that freedom falls in no body’s lap like a miraculous gift. However shrill and incredible these phrases may seem, they are the sounds of that future world, a world that truly needs art and can also expect true satisfaction from art.” (section 11)

This was the idealistic Nietzsche at his best. The trouble was this no longer fit into the reality of how he experienced life and Wagner. He was beginning to forge distinctive ideas of his own, only kept in notebooks to this point, and this caused him to suddenly see Wagner not so much as a genius as a decadent. In 1876, the whole Bayreuth metaphysic, something he had intimately devoted several years of his life to, now seemed hollow and sick. He experienced nausea just after a few days of the opening of Das Rheingold. He sought out his sister, Elizabeth, to nurse him through violent, recurring bouts of illness. It disrupted his life. For him Bayreuth became a carnival of the worst kind.

“Nietzsche traveled to Bayreuth in August for the Festpiel, yet immediately became disgruntled with the high society of ‘Hans Wahnfried’ and the pomp and circumstance of the festival; he fell desperately ill, left Bayreuth before the second cycle of the Ring was performed, returned, then left again, now for the last time.” (
The Good European, pages 95-96) Clearly, Fritz was indecisive about whether or not to remain at the opening of the Ring at Bayreuth. Apparently, he wanted to be there but it made him sick to be there.

However, Fritz doesn’t seem to have developed the need to abandon Bayreuth completely until a woman he met had first left. Perhaps this was his main reason for returning to Bayreuth after all. For a few days he befriended and my have become infatuated with a married woman conceivably on intimate term as he had Cosima Wagner years before. “For he himself had suffering eyes only for another lovely blonde creature, named Louise Ott. An inhabitant of Strasbourg who had moved to Paris with her Protestant husband after the German Reich’s annexation of Alsace and Lorraine, she was a rabid Wagnerian as well as a gifted singer and connoisseur of German and Russian music. Their ‘romance’, if such it can be called, seems to have been as momentarily intense as it was platonic. She was fascinated by the mysterious depth of Nietzsche’s gaze as well as by the elegance and diction and the exceptional ‘nobility’ of his thinking, devoid of all trace of platitudes. He for his part felt that he had met a kindred soul, capable of fully sharing his most elevated thoughts and feelings.

“’Everything was dark around me when you left Bayreuth,’ he wrote to her three days after his return to Basel, ‘it was as though someone had removed the light. I first had to pull myself together, but that I have now done…” (
Cate, page 225)

He was never to meet Mrs. Ott again.

Sunday, May 10, 2009

The Sociable Fritz: Part One

"As well as being happy in his cave (his apartment), Nietzsche enjoyed a vibrant social life. He was regularly to be found in the homes of colleagues and in Basel's best patrician houses - often overlapping categories since many of the professors came from the best families." (Young, page 165) Indeed, the man who became Basel's prodigy professor entered his academic career full of social life, just as he had enjoyed in Bonn and Leipzig before. "In the first years of his being (in Basel) he had a rich social life that included dance-evenings. The young women were enchanted with him." (Young, page 202)

We have seen glimpses of Nietzsche’s mind and personality in his own writings and letters. But, there is a large body of material available regarding what those who knew Fritz thought of him. A clearer picture of just who Nietzsche was can be found when one takes their writings into consideration.

Fritz enjoyed many friendships in his student days at Pforta and at Bonn. While attending Bonn he had the reputation of going out and drinking rather heavily, usually with a group of young men. These were his “party days” and there was no shortage of drinking buddies to accompany him. Perhaps the foremost of these was Paul Deussen, a friend at Pforta who decided to go with Fritz to Bonn to study theology. Deussen stayed with theology, ultimately graduating from the University of Bonn while Nietzsche switched to philology and at went to Leipzig.

It is obvious that, regardless who it was, a significant basis for any friendship with Nietzsche was a love for a wide range of aesthetic subjects as well as the enjoyment of long walks…and a sense of humor.

“On our solitary walks all possible subjects of religion, philosophy, literature, the fine arts, and music were discussed; often our thoughts trailed off into obscurity, and when words then failed, we looked each other in the eye, and said to one another, ‘I know what you mean.’ This expression became a familiar saying between us; we resolved to avoid it as trivial and had to laugh when occasionally it nonetheless slipped out.” (
Conversations with Nietzsche, page 14)

Duessen is our only primary source regarding Fritz visiting brothels. Or rather, a brothel. His telling of things, however, seems a bit contrived as Fritz did nothing at the brothel except have an anxiety attack and bang two very loud notes on the parlor piano and leave. I suspect he probably banged more than that and on future occasions as well.

Much later, in 1888, it was Duessen who “persuaded a number of Berlin friends to make a joint donation of 2,000 marks to cover the publishing costs of future books”. (Cate, page 522) Deussen was close enough to be chosen as Fritz’s “second” in the one and only duel Nietzsche fought in his life. With foils. He wrote about 1865: “Of course the dueling floor was visited zealously; even Nietzsche practiced as well as he could…With some foreboding I saw the day approaching when our friend, who was somewhat corpulent…and moreover very myopic, would have to undergo an adventure for which his qualifications were so ill-suited. After barely three minutes the opponent applied a cut diagonally across the bridge of Nietzsche’s nose right where too hard a pinch leaves a red mark. The blood was dripping to the ground…I loaded my well-bandaged friend into a carriage and took him home…and in two or three days our hero recuperated except of a tiny diagonal scar across the bridge of his nose, which he kept all his life and which did not look bad on him.” (pages 22-23)

Fritz's party days were developed in Bonn but they grew to their fullness when he became a student in Leipzig.  His preferred social circle was patrons of the theater.  "...he was leading an urbane social life in Leipzig, and as a theater reviewer for one of the major newspapers he was much in demand at receptions and dinner parties...Nietzsche threw himself into the vortex of social life as he never had before, and was more gregarious and sociable than ever before..." (Parkes, page 50)

A. Fritsch was an acquaintance of Fritz’s at Pforta.

“I came to know Nietzsche through music. In the central building of the institution was a room which contained the best piano. Only a few students selected by the music professor were allowed to play this piano. It was mostly afternoons between four and five. I first came in personal contact with Nietzsche on these practice afternoons, to which I was also admitted despite my great youth. He often played for us; he also liked to improvise on the piano, which made a great impression on all of us. We all idolized him somewhat in those days, for he wrote poetry and, what especially impressed me, he also composed wonderful pieces of music.” (page 17)

Fritz met Ida Rothpletz, the future wife to Franz Overbeck (whose special friendship we will discuss in a future post), in 1870. Ida recorded her initial thoughts regarding one afternoon when Fritz, Franz and Ida all enjoyed performing some music together. I think her more critical appreciation of Fritz is indicative of how well she and her husband knew him and respected him very intimately.

“He gave me the impression of a very introverted, somewhat ailing man. He tended to avoid encounters and conversations; but if they took place, then he was striking for the cordiality and earnestness he developed and seemed to direct to his counterpart. One immediately felt challenged to tell him something that one felt to be important. During a music session we played him Brahms’ four-handed love-waltz and Beethoven’s Opus 26. He listened attentively, then replied with Wagner’s ‘Eulogy’ from Die Meistersinger. He played it freely and seemed to reproduce it according to a performance he had heard rather than a studied extract of sheet music. In later years I heard it played again by him in exactly the same manner. He had no virtuosity, played almost hard and squarely, seeking the tones in memory, then on the keyboard.” (page 32)

One of Fritz’s physicians, Dr. Promitz, recalled the effect of Nietzsche’s aversion to strong sunlight on the atmosphere of his lectures in the early 1870’s at Basel.

“Since his eyes needed protection at an early age, even with moderate sunlight the window blinds had to be kept half-shut. The beneficial twilight heightened even further the magic effect of his method of instruction, which was completely ruled by the spirit of aesthetic freedom. He was far from any rigid pedantry and unhesitatingly allowed the reasonable use of German translations, provided we read as many Greek authors as possible with pleasure. Now it happened quite often that he randomly asked: ‘Now tell me, what is a philosopher?’ After the astonished student’s not very exhaustive reply he finished the class with a captivating extemporization.” (page 37)

Rudolf Eucken was a colleague at Basel and interacted often with Fritz at various academic parties. This remembrance is from the spring of 1871…

“I still remember vividly how amiable Nietzsche was toward doctoral candidates, how he was never unfriendly or excited, but discussed in a kind but superior manner; one got a most favorable impression. Then we often met at small parties, where he proved to be a pleasant conversationalist, without any trace of pettiness or malice; he was more reserved than obtrusive, but he could tell charming little stories and he was not without humor.” (page 40)

Malwida von Meysenberg would play a significant role in Nietzsche’s life. We will cover this in detail in a future post. She initially met Fritz in June 1872 at a Wagner concert. He was with Carl von Gersdorff at the time. She knew Nietzsche’s intensity, his gentility, and his joking manner.

“…the performance of Tristan and Isolde in Munich under the direction of Hans von Bulow. During the intermissions the two gentlemen (Fritz and Carl) …we walked around in the aisles of the first row in a joyful and excited mood, praising the high work of art we had seen. ‘I feel so happy,’ said Nietzsche, ‘not at all stormily excited, as was prophesied of this work, but internally happy and delighted that such a thing could have been created and performed so magnificently.’ And it was indeed a magnificent performance. We parted in cordial friendship, and there now began between us a correspondence which was for many years among the dearest of my associations. Here I first got to know Nietzsche’s amiable, friendly, kindly nature, of which the present letter gives eloquent evidence. He always wanted to help. To be useful, to do something kind and friendly for his friends, and even the sharpest excesses of his critically negative reason had a touch mitigating humor that often led us from the deepest seriousness to merriment and laughter.” (page 49)

Ida von Miaskowski was one of several female acquaintances Fritz had during this time. He was not romantically involved with any of them. Generally, the interaction involved music and literature. At social gatherings, Fritz apparently enjoyed reading aloud in addition to performing on the piano. Often the reading choice was a witty one.

“’For this evening Professor Nietzsche is said to have once again obtained a simply magnificent book to read aloud from.’ It was Mark Twain’s humorous short stories, which had just been published.”

“In the winter of 1874-75 Nietzsche also came every Friday afternoon to accompany my singing. He always brought many new scores, which we studied and practiced together. At the end my husband used to join us, while Nietzsche improvised or played extracts from Wagner’s operas, which he always did from memory and very masterfully.” (page 52)

Of special significance was Fritz’s friendship with Peter Gast. Gast was the pseudo-name of Heinrich Koselitz who was a mediocre composer that took a great deal of interest in Nietzsche’s early work. For his part, Fritz found Gast an invaluable assistant. Like so much of his work, less would have been accomplished due to Nietzsche’s constantly recurring (perhaps partly psychosomatic) sicknesses without the assistance of friends, particularly Gast.

“Closer relations with Nietzsche began for me, however, really only from the moment he told me that he had begun but left incomplete an Untimely Meditation on Richard Wagner. This was at about the end of April 1876….he considered the work too personal for publication. From that time on I helped Nietzsche by taking dictation (and at times by reading aloud), at first very rarely, but almost daily from September 1876 until he went to Sorrento, then again in the winter semester 1877-78 until my departure for Venice (April 1878). From Untimely [Meditations] IV until the end of 1881 I also read without exception every proof of his successive works for publication.” (page 59)

Nietzsche would champion the composer’s music under the name of “Peter Gast” at times throughout these years. Most likely he advocated Gast, in part, as a tool in his growing assault against Wagner, as he ironically broke from Wagner at the moment of Wagner’s highest achievement and at the time of the publication of “Wagner at Bayreuth.” It would be a profound crisis in his young life. But, Fritz also advocated Gast out of being a genteel person. He wanted his friend to succeed and he wanted to help him. It was this quality that Malwida von Meysenberg and Franz Overbeck saw so clearly in him and it drew him many personal admirers.

Gast would help convince Nietzsche to finish the essay on Wagner.